About The Republic of Egypt

Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of the African continent, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Red Sea and Israel to the East, Libya to the west and Sudan to the south. The country consists of 400,000 square miles of desert, bisected by the Nile River. Along the Nile is a narrow, fertile river valley, where 90% of the country’s 80 million population resides. Cairo is, of course, situated along the Nile, and 25% of Egyptians live in Cairo. Cairo is the pretty much the most densely packed city in the world. The land on the west side of the Nile is part of the greater Sahara desert.

Historians believe that the whole of Egypt was occupied since before 25,000 BC, when North Africa was a grassy savannah with abundant wildlife and lakes. When the climate changed to a desert, people migrated to the water. Settlements have been found that date back to 5,000 BC, and it is believed that their hieroglyphic writing begin about this time. Little is known about the people of that era, except that they lived on fishing and agriculture, and made pottery and woven material. Artifacts indicate that Egypt became unified under King Narmer around 3,100 BC, believed to be the first in a royal bloodline that lasted 3,000 years. Egyptian history is grouped into three major periods Old, Middle and New Kingdoms, each separated by periods of decline known as Intermediate Periods.

The Old Kingdom reigned from Memphis, which is in the northern portion of the country, just south of Cairo. The first pyramids were Continue reading About The Republic of Egypt